The following two major challenges can be identified at Member State level in terms of first responders delivering assistance to a CBRN-security incident scenario, where law enforcement and security services have the lead:

(1) The different working requirements of law enforcement and security structures in terms of procedures, tasks, tools, responsibilities and liabilities. First responders and law enforcement officers respond to different authorities and have different interests (saving lives versus criminal investigations). In practice this can lead to conflicts at the incident scene thus hampering effective responses;

(2) The on-site interagency coordination between governmental services in charge of safety (fire services) and security (law enforcement and security services), in terms of EU incoming assistance through the European Mechanism for Civil Protection during a CBRN incident, is not well defined. The current EU Host Nation Support Guidelines (Commission Staff Working Document of 1 June 2012) do not address the CBRN scenario and its specific requirements. These problems have been confirmed by the project partners during recent national CBRN-incidents and were confirmed to exist also in other Member States in a similar manner (more specifically the European exercise EU CREMEX 2011 identified a number

of issues in this respect for Estonia, NL and UK). This national project therefore aims to address the issue of integrated response, by building on previous experiences of other Member States (Estonia, NL) and testing them in a pilot area – Italy. By doing so it will further validate the previous work done by others and take it one step ahead, by developing and implementing specific guidelines and curricula, which can be used by other MS at a later stage. The issue is relevant as the capability of Member States to deal with CBRN-incidents is limited (it is a low probability/high impact event) and assistance from other Member States can make a difference.